Abdomen is the medical (Latin) name for the cavity between the chest and pelvis and its internal organs.
ACE inhibitors (short for Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors) are a class of drugs used to treat high blood pressure. Amongst other mechanisms, ACE inhibitors inhibit degradation of bradykinin, leading to an increase of bradykinin levels, which can trigger angioedema. This can happen the first time an ACE inhibitor is taken. ACE inhibitors are for examples captopril, enalapril, lisinopril and ramipril.
Acquired angioedema (AAE) also known as acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency. Usually starts in the fourth decade of life. There are 2 forms: of acquired angioedema – type I (AAE-I) and acquired angioedema type II (AAE-II). AAE-I is associated with other diseases, most commonly B-cell lymph proliferative disorders. AAE-II is an autoimmune process defined by the presence of an autoantibody directed against the C1 inhibitor molecule (C1-INH).
Adrenaline is a hormone that is formed in the adrenal medulla and released into the blood in stressful situations. Among other things, adrenaline increases blood pressure, speeds up the heartbeat and dilates the bronchi. It is administered (in combination with other drugs) in an emergency involving anaphylactic shock. In this situation, it causes the blood vessels to constrict, increases cardiac output and makes it easier for the patient to breathe.
An agonist is a naturally occurring or synthetic substance (e.g. a drug) that binds to a cell receptor and activates it, thereby triggering certain responses in the cell. An example of an agonist is the tissue hormone bradykinin, which increases the permeability of the blood vessels by binding to its receptor. The opposite of an agonist is an antagonist.
An allergy is an overreaction of the immune system to substances in the environment that are usually harmless, such as pollen or food components, or to insect venom and drugs. The substances that trigger the allergy are called allergens. The body responds to allergens with signs of inflammation and production of antibodies. The tissue hormone histamine is the main cause of reactions such as swelling, redness and itching. In extreme cases, an allergic reaction can escalate to anaphylactic shock, which can result in cardiovascular failure. An allergic reaction can manifest itself on the skin in the form of wheals (urticaria).
Anaphylactic shock is the most severe form of an allergic reaction and can be triggered by allergens such as drugs, insect venom or food components. Within a few minutes of contact with the allergen, there is a rapid drop in blood pressure with reduced perfusion of important organs. In extreme cases, fatal cardiovascular failure occurs.
Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. This includes the activity of the accessory male sex organs and development of male secondary sex characteristics. Androgens, which were first discovered in 1936, are also called androgenic hormones or testoids. Androgens are also the original anabolic steroids. They are also the precursor of all estrogens, the female sex hormones. The primary and most well-known androgen is testosterone.
Angioedema is the name for an acute swelling that occurs in subcutaneous tissue or mucous membranes and can last from several hours to days. The swelling can affect both external areas (face, extremities and genitalia) and internal organs (digestive tract). Laryngeal edema involves swelling in the larynx, which can be associated with life-threatening breathing difficulties.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors)
See ACE Inhibitors.
In pharmacology, a drug that attenuates or even completely eliminates the effect of an agonist by blocking the site at which it binds to its receptor is called an antagonist. In doing so, the antagonist has no physiological effect of its own. The active substance icatibant is an antagonist that binds to the bradykinin B2 receptor, thereby inhibiting the effect of bradykinin.
An antifibrinolytic agent is a substance, such as a drug, that prevents the degradation of blood clots by inhibiting degradation of fibrin, an important component of the blood clot.
Antihistamines are drugs used, among other things, to treat allergies or anaphylactic shock. They bind to the receptor of the tissue hormone histamine, which is responsible for the symptoms of an allergic reaction, and attenuate or completely eliminate its effect.
Antihistamines have no effect on hereditary angioedema, as its symptoms are caused mainly by the peptide hormone bradykinin.
Autosomal inheritance is the inheritance of a characteristic (of a gene) via what are known as autosomes, of which there are 16 pairs, rather than the sex chromosomes.
Inheritance can be either dominant or recessive.